The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between parental smoking and ever having asthma among children of school age. Among the variety of different types of cancer, one of the most common is lung cancer; the environment in which people live in the 21st century greatly contributes to the development of this type of cancer.
The concentrations of secondhand smoke components in a space depend on the number of smokers and the rate at which they are smoking, the volume into which the smoke is distributed, the rate at which the air in the space exchanges with uncontaminated air, and the rate at which the secondhand smoke is removed from the air.
Chapter 7 Cancer Among Adults from Exposure to Secondhand Smoke summarizes the evidence on cancer of the lung, breast, nasal sinuses, and the cervix. Normal lung tissue is made up of cells that are programmed by genes to create lung tissue in a certain shape and to perform certain functions.
Nonetheless, researchers have used a variety of approaches for exposure assessments in epidemiologic studies of adverse health effects from involuntary smoking.
Separating smokers from nonsmokers, cleaning the air, and ventilating buildings cannot eliminate exposures of nonsmokers to secondhand smoke. Another methodologic concern affecting secondhand smoke literature comes from the use of meta-analysis to combine the findings of epidemiologic studies; general concerns related to the use of meta-analysis for observational data and more specific concerns related to involuntary smoking have also been raised.
The evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship between short-term secondhand smoke exposure and an acute decline in lung function in persons with asthma.
The challenges faced in carrying out these studies reflect those of observational research generally: Evidence suggests that exposure to secondhand smoke varies by ethnicity and gender. The evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
The evidence is inadequate to infer the presence or absence of a causal relationship between exposure to secondhand smoke and behavioral problems among children. Some studies have also measured components of secondhand smoke in the air.
For some associations of involuntary smoking with adverse health effects, only a few studies were reviewed in e. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of the evidence, a quantitative synthesis of the evidence if appropriate, and a rigorous assessment of sources of bias that may affect interpretations of the findings.
The smoke particles change in size and composition as gaseous components are volatilized and moisture content changes; gaseous elements of secondhand smoke may be adsorbed onto materials, and particle concentrations drop with both dilution in the air or environment and impaction on surfaces, including the lungs or on the body.
Chapter 2 Toxicology of Secondhand Smoke sets out a foundation for interpreting the observational evidence that is the focus of most of the following chapters.
Emerson and colleagues evaluated the repeatability of information from parents of children with asthma. The operation of a heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system can distribute secondhand smoke throughout a building.
As and when more resources become available, the programme can be extended to include other curable cancers as well as cancers for which treatment can prolong survival considerably.
Estimates of approximately 3, U. This introductory chapter Chapter 1 includes a discussion of the concept of causation and introduces concepts of causality that are used throughout this report; this chapter also summarizes the major conclusions of the report.
In fact, for involuntary smoking and health, several of the criteria will not be met for some associations.
Exposure to secondhand smoke tends to be greater for persons with lower incomes. This report uses the term secondhand smoke in preference to environmental tobacco smoke, even though the latter may have been used more frequently in previous reports.
Evidence on the barriers to diagnosis and treatment in country contexts — and the lessons learned in overcoming them — would be especially welcome contact at http: Questionnaires that assess exposures have been the primary tool used in epidemiologic studies of secondhand smoke and disease.
A microenvironment is a definable location that has a constant concentration of the contaminant of interest, such as secondhand smoke, during the time that a person is there.
Organization of the Report This twenty-ninth report of the Surgeon General examines the topics of toxicology of secondhand smoke, assessment and prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke, reproductive and developmental health effects, respiratory effects of exposure to secondhand smoke in children and adults, cancer among adults, cardiovascular diseases, and the control of secondhand smoke exposure.
Specificity, referring to a unique exposure-disease relationship e. Sidestream smoke, generated at lower temperatures and under somewhat different combustion conditions than mainstream smoke, tends to have higher concentrations of many of the toxins found in cigarette smoke USDHHS The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between parental smoking and cough, phlegm, wheeze, and breathlessness among children of school age.
Concerns about bias apply to any study of an environmental agent and disease risk: The evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and acute respiratory symptoms including cough, wheeze, chest tightness, and difficulty breathing among persons with asthma.
With regard to the effects of involuntary smoking on children, the NRC report commented on the literature linking secondhand smoke exposures from parental smoking to increased risks for respiratory symptoms and infections and to a slightly diminished rate of lung growth.
Initial chapters were written by 22 experts who were selected because of their knowledge of a particular topic.
The evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship between chronic secondhand smoke exposure and a small decrement in lung function in the general population.
Publication lags, even short ones, prevent an up-to-the-minute inclusion of all recently published articles and data. Cigarette smoke contains both particles and gases generated by the combustion at high temperatures of tobacco, paper, and additives.
Estimates of approximately 3, U. Questionnaires can be used to characterize sources of exposures, such as smoking by parents. The evidence is inadequate to infer the presence or absence of a causal relationship between prenatal and postnatal exposure to secondhand smoke and other childhood cancer types.
Lung Cancer Research Paper Lung Cancer from Smoking and Oset, Cellular Division, and Gender: Common Links Between Osteoporosis and Lung Cancer A 5 page review of the cellular manifestations of two potentially deadly conditions.
Genetics and lung diseases in one’s genetics can also become significant risk factors of lung cancer. For example, if a person’s mother, father, sibling, aunt, uncle, or grandparent has had lung cancer, the chances of this person developing lung cancer slightly increases.
While tobacco, is the leading cause of lung cancer, some other carcinogens linked to lung cancer include radon and asbestos. These mutations in the genetic material of the lung cells cause the instructions for those cells to go askew. While lung cancer remains a very challenging cancer to treat, new treatments that capitalize on advances in our understanding of cancer biology are providing both patients and physicians with a reason for cautious optimism.
What Lung Cancer is, How Cells Become Cancerous, and What Carcinogens Are - In this seminar (essay) we will be discussing cancer, specifically lung cancer, what it is, how cells become cancerous, and what carcinogens are. lung cancer Essay - Lung cancer is the most common cancer-related cause of death among men and women.
Lung cancer can be undetected for many years causing it to become more dangerous and possibly fatal. There is not cure for lung cancer or any cancer, but if detected in an early stage the lung cancer can be detected, treated, and hopefully.Lung cancer essay conclusion